Prof. Dr. Mojca Ramšak: Healthcare as a public space: Exploring new digital worlds. Field research challenges in pandemic time
Assit. Prof. Dr. Erika Zelko (General Medicine Specialist, Faculty of Medicine Marivbor, Public Health Center Ljubljana): Roma in Prekmurje ten years later
Health systems overall in the world are becoming increasingly complex, so functional health systems that provide high-quality services are among the priorities of governments. Ten years after the first study we asked Roma representatives to determine their attitudes towards the healthcare system and estimate how challenging is the system for them now. We conducted 23 interviews with Roma representatives per phone and determined five logical categories that explain the attitudes of the Roma towards health, satisfaction, problems and prospects and the functioning of the health system on the local level. These are: experiences with the healthcare system, personal healthcare, patient -physician relationship, barriers to access the healthcare system and cultural sensitivity. Roma people are a part of changes in the society and have also witnessed the adaption of the healthcare system during the epidemic times. Mostly they are very satisfied with the changes and manage the challenges in the healthcare system well, but their also recognize new barriers to face with, like low health literacy and need of Roma mediators to be included. Dr. Zelko will present the results of the research project and Roma community in Prekmurje.
The purpose of the seminar is an in-depth analysis of issues related to equality, diversity and discrimination in the area of the right to health, the right to health protection and the right to access to health care. In this edition, special attention will be devoted to the issue of equal access to health care: philosophical analysis of the concept of accessibility and ethical issues related to it; legal guarantees of equal access and barriers in this area, especially those experienced by groups particularly vulnerable to exclusion and discrimination; social movements for health equality, in particular access to health care.
The seminar is providing interdisciplinary perspective and will consist of three thematic blocks: 1) philosophical (the concept of equal access to health care in the context of the concepts of justice and equality, related ethical issues); 2) legal and political sciences (European and national legal regulations on equal access to health care); 3) the sociological and anthropological (the use of qualitative methods for research on barriers in access to healthcare experienced by various social groups: women, migrants, persons with disabilities, representatives of sexual, religious, ethnic and cultural minorities; analysis of selected social movements for health and equitable access to health care).
The seminar is related to the project Healthcare as a Public Space. Social Integration and Social Diversity in the Context of Access to Healthcare in Europe (National Science Center: HERA (Humanities in the European Research Area) - Public Spaces: Culture and Integration in Europe; Research funding program scientific and innovation of the European Union „Horizon 2020”).
Assistant Professor Dalida Rittossa, PhD (Department of Criminal Law, Faculty of Law, University of Rijeka, Croatia): Domestic Violence in the Age of Covid – 19 - The Role of the Health System in Protecting the Most Vulnerable
The results of the first research on Covid-19 disease as a criminological factor showed that home is not a safe place for children and victims of domestic violence. According to the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), domestic violence increased by 20% during the lockdown. If the spring scenario were to repeat, the first 3 months of a ban on leaving home would lead to a steep rise in domestic violence by an additional 15 million cases.
Assistant Professor Rittossa described the characteristics of domestic violence and the view of the Croatian legislator on this phenomenon. She also stressed the importance of providing victims of domestic violence with access to the existing system of support and protection of their rights during the Covid-19 crisis, where the role of health professionals is crucial.
During the online public lecture, the data of the conducted pilot study between the employees of the associations "Center for Nonviolence and Human Rights - SOS Rijeka" and "U.Z.O.R. - Association for the Protection of the Family of Rijeka" and their users were presented. The study aimed to determine whether persons who have been subjected to domestic violence turn to doctors and other health professionals. Based on the preliminary results of this and other related research, an upgrade of the system for the protection of the rights of vulnerable victims during a pandemic will be proposed.
The online public lecture was attended by health professionals, social workers, and other interested public.
Members of the Croatian project group, Ivana Tutić Grokša and Robert Doričić, and Assistant Professor Rittossa, were guests on the show Planet Ri on Kanal Ri. The HERA project was presented there.
MD Ines Gumilar (Specialist in Family Medicine, Gornja Radgona Public Health Center): ‚Pro Bono' Clinics in Slovenia
The term “pro bono publico” (abbreviated “pro bono”) derives from Latin and means good to the people. It is a professional, voluntary unpaid work in different fields providing specific services to those people who cannot afford it. In 2020 Slovenia has 7 pro bono clinics for people with no health insurance, mostly from marginalized and vulnerable groups such as migrants, homeless people, the elderly, illicit drug users, the unemployed, people with mental health problems, the Roma, the self-employed, people with precarious, employment and people with various forms of disability. The lecturer presented the history and characteristics of the pro bono clinics and the collaboration with general practitioners.
Legal regulations on diversity in healthcare in European countries: challenges for national legislation
Healthcare, understood as a medical space, is an excellent example of a public space that models the processes of social integration and social equity. In a general sense, healthcare can connect diverse groups of a society under the common idea of health and illness. However, depending on its organization, it can also influence societal segregation of minority groups. Although the issues of minorities’ equality are central to European Institutions, European guidelines are mostly still not observed in the national legal regulations and healthcare practice.
The Conference intends to examine the implementation of norms and guidelines of the European Institutions concerning diversity and ethical, cultural, and social aspects of integration and exclusion within the healthcare sector in national legal frameworks of Germany, Croatia, Slovenia and Poland.
The Conference is held in the scope of the project HERA: Public Spaces. Culture and Integration in Europe (2019-2022) – „Healthcare as a Public Space: Social Integration and Social Diversity in the Context of Access to Healthcare in Europe.” This project has received funding frm the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE and mobile device applications in healthcare – chances for the access to healthcare in a diverse society
The developments in the sector of e-health offer substantial opportunities for healthcare, such as securing and improving the medical and nursing provision. Yet, Artificial Intelligence in healthcare is not a vision for the future, it is already used in everyday practice. The aim of the workshop was to point out in which way Artificial Intelligence and mobile device applications are used in healthcare practice, which projects are planed and which opportunities this might provide for access to healthcare in diverse society. Experts from different fields like psychotherapy, information technology and geriatrics highlighted applications and possibilities but also raised ethical questions.
Prof. Magdalena Środa, PhD (University of Warsaw): Health – accessible for everyone?
The right to health protection is a human right. The Constitution of the Republic of Poland guarantees all citizens "equal access to health care services, financed from public funds, shall be ensured by public authorities to citizens, irrespective of their material situation”. Equity in this respect is protected by EU regulations. However, in practice, women, representatives of sexual, religious and cultural minorities, and migrants still face unequal treatment and discrimination in their contacts with healthcare institutions. During the public lecture, Prof. Magdalena Środa, PhD, from University of Warsaw talked about forms of discrimination in access to healthcare. The lecture was followed by a discussion panel with the participation of Prof. Paweł Łuków, Katarzyna Bielińska, PhD, and Anna Chowaniec, MA. The lecture was included in the set of events of Festival of Science.
Prof. Dr. (TR) Dr. phil. et med habil. İlhan İlkiliç (Chair Dep. of History of Medicine and Ethics, Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul / Capa, Turkey):
Ethical Issues of Interculturality in Healthcare
In multicultural societies, encounters between doctors and patients from different cultural backgrounds are an everyday occurrence. Thus, depending on the cultural understanding there may be divergent assessments of the disease value of a given condition,the degree of suffering, and therapeutic goal. Intercultural doctor-patient conflicts arising out of different value systems to which the actors subscribe cover a broad spectrum involving various problems and complexities, depending on the specific issues at stake. The lecture expounded communication barriers, cultural practices and moral diversity in intercultural setting with regard to their ethical implications and reflected on intercultural physician-patient relationship and analyse some ethical concepts, which might help to legitimate our medical ethical decisions in a value pluralistic society.
Healthcare as a Public Space: Social Integration and Social Diversity in the Context of Access to Healthcare in Europe
Organised by: Prof. Zvonka Zupanič-Slavec, MD, PhD, and Prof. Mojca Ramšak, PhD